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Coupled oceanic oxygenation and metazoan diversification during the early-middle Cambrian?

The early–middle Cambrian (Fortunian to Age 4) is characterized by a significant increase in metazoan diversification. Furthermore, this interval is marked by a prominent environmental and ecological expansion of arthropod- and echinoderm-rich biotas. Recent redox work has suggested that this shift occurred during stable or decreasing marine oxygen...

Fire biases the production of charred flowers: Implications for the Cretaceous fossil record

The radiation of angiosperm lineages during the Cretaceous Period (145.5–65.5 Ma) initiated one of the greatest floral turnovers to have occurred on our planet. Much of our understanding of the floral biology and diversity of these early angiosperms derives from exceptionally preserved charcoalified and coalified Cretaceous fossil floras. Although...

Cryptic metasomatism during late-stage lunar magmatism implicated by sulfur in apatite

The use of volatile-bearing (H2O-Cl-F-C-S) minerals as proxies for constraining the volatile content of lunar magmas remains controversial. In this study, we apply published F-Cl-S signature trends in apatite from lunar mare basalts, new experimentally determined apatitemelt partition coefficients for S, and thermodynamic modeling to demonstrate...

In situ peridotitic diamond in Indus ophiolite sourced from hydrocarbon fluids in the mantle transition zone

In recent years ophiolitic diamonds have been reported mostly from podiform chromitites. However, the mechanism of such diamond formation remains unknown. We report in situ diamond, graphite pseudomorphs after diamond crystals, and hydrocarbon (C-H) and hydrogen (H2) fluid inclusions in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) peridotitic minerals of the Nidar...

Outgassing and eruption of basaltic magmas: The effect of conduit geometry

The flow dynamics of magmas is controlled by several parameters, including magma rheology, density, surface tension, gas and liquid flow rate, and the geometry of the flow field, which is mainly regulated by the conduit shape. For this reason, magmatic flows along fissures and dikes are significantly different from those along axisymmetric conduits....

Tropical weathering of the Taconic orogeny as a driver for Ordovician cooling

The Earth's climate cooled through the Ordovician Period leading up to the Hirnantian glaciation. Increased weatherability of silicate rocks associated with topography generated on the Appalachian margin during the Taconic orogeny has been proposed as a mechanism for Ordovician cooling. However, paleogeographic reconstructions typically place the...

Evolution of shear fabric in granular fault gouge from stable sliding to stick slip and implications for fault slip mode

Laboratory and theoretical studies provide insight into the mechanisms that control earthquake nucleation, when fault slip velocity is slow (<0.001 cm/s), and dynamic rupture when fault slip rates exceed centimeters per second. The application of these results to tectonic faults requires information about fabric evolution with shear and its ...

Geological record of flat slab-induced extension in the southern Peruvian forearc

The long-lived Andean subduction zone underwent several flat slab episodes and is therefore ideal to study the consequences of a complete cycle of slab flattening and steepening on the upper plate deformation pattern. In the modern Peruvian forearc (15°–17°S), slab flattening caused a Paleogene (52–30 Ma) landward migration of volcanic activity....

Regional remagnetization of Irish Carboniferous carbonates dates Variscan orogenesis, not Zn-Pb mineralization

Paleomagnetic methods have been used in economic geology to date mineralization in sediment-hosted ore deposits and thereby help to develop ore deposit models and understand the geodynamic settings in which mineralization can occur. However, paleomagnetic ages are sometimes inconsistent with other geochronological techniques and with geological...

Late Triassic mollusk-dominated hydrocarbon-seep deposits from Turkey

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and hydrocarbon seeps host unique ecosystems relying on geochemical energy rather than photosynthesis. Whereas the fossil and evolutionary history of these ecosystems is increasingly well known from the Cretaceous onward, their earlier history remains poorly understood and brachiopods are considered to have played a dominant...

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