HBS Working Knowledge

Harvard Business School Working Knowledge offers business practitioners a first look at cutting-edge research and thinking from more than 200 HBS faculty.

Latest articles

Dog Eat Dog: Measuring Network Effects Using a Digital Platform Merger

With heated debate over antitrust regulation of online platforms, this study finds that when a larger platform acquired its greatest competitor, users were not better off with a single platform compared to two competitors, despite marked efficiency improvements experienced by the acquiring platform.

How 'Small C' Change Can Beat Large-Scale Rebuilding

Many business leaders are convinced that large-scale change is necessary to bounce back from difficult times. But a professional soccer team's surprise success shows that smaller measures can work better, write Boris Groysberg and colleagues.

Is A/B Testing Effective? Evidence from 35,000 Startups

A/B tests help startup founders capitalize on good ideas—and move on from duds—faster, says research from Rembrand Koning. How can established companies benefit?

The Political Effects of Immigration: Culture or Economics?

This paper reviews and explains the growing literature focused on the political effects of immigration, and highlights fruitful avenues for future research. When compared to potential labor market competition and other economic forces, broadly defined cultural factors have a stronger political and social impact.

Accounting for Product Impact in the Airlines Industry

A systematic methodology for measuring product impact can be applied across a range of industries. Examining two competitor companies in the airlines industry, this study finds that analyzing each dimension of product impact allows for deeper understanding of each company’s business strategies.

Aggregate Advertising Expenditure in the US Economy: What's Up? Is It Real?

We analyze total United States advertising spending from 1960 to 2018. In nominal terms, the elasticity of annual advertising outlays with respect to gross domestic product appears to have increased substantially beginning in the late 1990s, roughly coinciding with the dramatic growth of internet-based advertising.

Unexpected Exercise Advice for the Super Busy: Ditch the Rigid Routine

Itching to get off the COVID couch? New research by John Beshears bucks conventional wisdom about what it takes to make exercise a habit.

The ESG-Innovation Disconnect: Evidence from Green Patenting

Energy-producing firms are more likely to produce “blockbuster” green patents than other firms. Yet energy firms are excluded from many environmental, social, and governance (ESG) funds, and are the targets of divestiture campaigns whose stated aims often include green energy innovation.

Using Behavioral Science to Improve Well-Being for Social Workers

How Do We Sustain Organization Diversity?

Can workforce diversity take hold without inclusion? James Heskett reflects on one company's high-profile struggle to bring in more Black executives.

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