Latest Results for Neurochemical Research

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Role of Astrocytes in Manganese Neurotoxicity Revisited

Abstract Manganese (Mn) overexposure is a public health concern due to its widespread industrial usage and the risk for environmental contamination. The clinical symptoms of Mn neurotoxicity, or manganism, share several pathological features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Biologically, Mn is an essential trace element, and Mn in the...

Protective Effects of ACY-1215 Against Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment and Brain Damage in Mice

Abstract Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a potential long-term side effect during cancer treatment. There are currently no effective treatments for CRCI. Reduction or inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been considered a possible therapeutic strategy for cognitive deficits. HDAC6 inhibition recently...

Tissue Injury and Astrocytic Reaction, But Not Cognitive Deficits, Are Dependent on Hypoxia Duration in Very Immature Rats Undergoing Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

Abstract Preterm birth and hypoxia–ischemia (HI) are major causes of neonatal death and neurological disabilities in newborns. The widely used preclinical HI model combines carotid occlusion with hypoxia exposure; however, the relationship between different hypoxia exposure periods with brain tissue loss, astrocyte reactivity and...

Nestin Null Mice Show Improved Reversal Place Learning

Abstract The intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed by neural stem cells, but also by some astrocytes in the neurogenic niche of the hippocampus in the adult rodent brain. We recently reported that nestin-deficient (Nes−/−) mice showed increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, reduced Notch signaling from Nes−/− astrocytes...

Neuroprotection of Andrographolide Against Microglia-Mediated Inflammatory Injury and Oxidative Damage in PC12 Neurons

Abstract Andrographolide from leaves of Andrographis paniculata has been known to possess various bioactivities. In the present study, we aimed to explore the neuroprotection of andrographolide against inflammation-mediated injury and oxidative damage. In initial studies, our findings showed that pretreatment with andrographolide...

Forced Physical Training Increases Neuronal Proliferation and Maturation with Their Integration into Normal Circuits in Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus Mice

Abstract Increased number of newly-born neurons produced at latent stage after status epilepticus (SE) contribute to aberrant rewiring of hippocampus and are hypothesized to promote epileptogenesis. Although physical training (PT) was reported to cause further increase in neurogenesis after SE, how PT affect their integration pattern...

TGF-β2/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Activation Through Enhancing VEGF and CD34 Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury After Isoflurane Post-conditioning in Rats

Abstract Evidence has shown the therapeutic potential of isoflurane (ISO) in cerebral stroke. The present study investigated the mechanism of ISO on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 expression in a rat model of stroke. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for...

Dysregulation of Hyaluronan Homeostasis During White Matter Injury

Abstract Although the extra cellular matrix (ECM) comprises a major proportion of the CNS parenchyma, new roles for the ECM in regeneration and repair responses to CNS injury have only recently been appreciated. The ECM undergoes extensive remodeling following injury to the developing or mature CNS in disorders that –include perinatal...

PKCγ and PKCε are Differentially Activated and Modulate Neurotoxic Signaling Pathways During Oxygen Glucose Deprivation in Rat Cortical Slices

Abstract Cerebral ischemia is known to trigger a series of intracellular events such as changes in metabolism, membrane function and intracellular transduction, which eventually leads to cell death. Many of these processes are mediated by intracellular signaling cascades that involve protein kinase activation. Among all the kinases...

The Mitochondrial Targets of Neuroprotective Drug Vinpocetine on Primary Neuron Cultures, Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells, Synaptosomes, and Brain Mitochondria

Abstract Vinpocetine is considered as neuroprotectant drug and used for treatment of brain ischemia and cognitive deficiencies for decades. A number of enzymes, channels and receptors can bind vinpocetine, however the mechanisms of many effects’ are still not clear. The present study investigated the effects of vinpocetine from the...

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