Latest Results for Human Genetics

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Genetic evidence suggests a sense of family, parity and conquest in the Xiongnu Iron Age nomads of Mongolia

Abstract In an effort to characterize the people who composed the groups known as the Xiongnu, nuclear and whole mitochondrial DNA data were generated from the skeletal remains of 52 individuals excavated from the Tamir Ulaan Khoshuu (TUK) cemetery in Central Mongolia. This burial site, attributed to the Xiongnu period, was used...

Genomic, transcriptomic, and protein landscape profile of CFTR and cystic fibrosis

Abstract Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is caused most often by removal of amino acid 508 (Phe508del, deltaF508) within CFTR, yet dozens of additional CFTR variants are known to give rise to CF and many variants in the genome are known to contribute to CF pathology. To address CFTR coding variants, we developed a sequence-to-structure-to-dynamic...

Identifying adaptive alleles in the human genome: from selection mapping to functional validation

Abstract The suite of phenotypic diversity across geographically distributed human populations is the outcome of genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection throughout human evolution. Human genetic variation underlying local biological adaptations to selective pressures is incompletely characterized. With the emergence of population...

Deciphering the complexity of simple chromosomal insertions by genome sequencing

Abstract Chromosomal insertions are thought to be rare structural rearrangements. The current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of their origin is still limited. In this study, we sequenced 16 cases with apparent simple insertions previously identified by karyotyping and/or chromosomal microarray analysis. Using mate-pair...

Overview of PAX gene family: analysis of human tissue-specific variant expression and involvement in human disease

Abstract Paired-box (PAX) genes encode a family of highly conserved transcription factors found in vertebrates and invertebrates. PAX proteins are defined by the presence of a paired domain that is evolutionarily conserved across phylogenies. Inclusion of a homeodomain and/or an octapeptide linker subdivides PAX proteins into four...

Disclosure of secondary findings in exome sequencing of 2480 Japanese cancer patients

Abstract High-throughput sequencing has greatly contributed to precision medicine. However, challenges remain in reporting secondary findings (SFs) of germline pathogenic variants and managing the affected patients. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of SFs in Japanese cancer patients using whole exome sequencing...

Compound heterozygous mutation of the ASXL3 gene causes autosomal recessive congenital heart disease

Abstract To explore mutations in the additional sex combs-like 3 (ASXL3) gene in two Chinese families with congenital heart disease (CHD). Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was used to reveal a novel compound heterozygous mutation in the ASXL3 gene that was associated with CHD. Sanger sequencing of a further 122 CHD patients was used...

Population genetics: past, present, and future

Abstract We present selected topics of population genetics and molecular phylogeny. As several excellent review articles have been published and generally focus on European and American scientists, here, we emphasize contributions by Japanese researchers. Our review may also be seen as a belated 50-year celebration of Motoo Kimura’s...

A pooled genome-wide association study identifies pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 19p12 and 19p13.3 in the full-Jewish population

Abstract Jews are estimated to be at increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared to non-Jews, but their observed 50–80% excess risk is not explained by known non-genetic or genetic risk factors. We conducted a GWAS in a case–control sample of American Jews, largely Ashkenazi, including 406 pancreatic cancer patients and 2332 controls,...

A Southeast Asian origin for present-day non-African human Y chromosomes

Abstract The genomes of present-day humans outside Africa originated almost entirely from a single out-migration ~ 50,000–70,000 years ago, followed by mixture with Neanderthals contributing ~ 2% to all non-Africans. However, the details of this initial migration remain poorly understood because no ancient DNA analyses are available...

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