Glia

Wiley Online Library : Glia

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αV integrins in Schwann cells promote attachment to axons, but are dispensable in vivo

Main points Schwann cells (SC) utilize αV‐containing integrins to initiate their extension along axons in vitro. αV‐containing integrins localize to the tip of the SC process contacting the axon. SC‐specific deletion of the integrin subunits αV, α5, β3, or β8 in mice does not affect myelination during development or remyelination after injury. ...

Repetitive injury and absence of monocytes promote astrocyte self‐renewal and neurological recovery

Main Points: Repetitive injury activates proliferation of previously quiescent astrocytes. Reactive astrocytes can proliferate repeatedly. Lack of monocytes promotes cell cycle re‐entry of astrocytes at the injury site and neurological recovery. Abstract Unlike microglia and NG2 glia, astrocytes are incapable of migrating to sites of...

Phagocytosis‐related NADPH oxidase 2 subunit gp91phox contributes to neurodegeneration after repeated systemic challenge with lipopolysaccharides

Graphical Abstract Main points Loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta upon repeated systemic application of LPS was attenuated in NOX‐2 KO compared to WT control mice. Complement, phagocytosis/lysosome and necroptosis/apoptosis are the major involved pathways. Abstract Repeated systemic challenge with lipopolysaccharides...

Sequential changes in histone modifications shape transcriptional responses underlying microglia polarization by glioma

Graphical Abstract MAIN POINTS Glioma‐induced transcriptional memory prevents activation of inflammatory genes in microglia. Distinct histone marks are established on pro‐tumorigenic and inflammatory genes. HDAC inhibitors block pro‐tumorigenic activation of microglia. ABSTRACT Microglia, resident myeloid cells of the central...

Migrating Schwann cells direct axon regeneration within the peripheral nerve bridge

Main points Following peripheral nerve transection injury, a nerve bridge is formed to connect both nerve ends. Schwann cells activate their migration and guide axons across the bridge. Multiple signaling pathways are involved in migration of Schwann cells. Abstract Schwann cells within the peripheral nervous system possess a remarkable...

Disrupted function of lactate transporter MCT1, but not MCT4, in Schwann cells affects the maintenance of motor end‐plate innervation

MCT1 expressed by Schwann cells is necessary for the long‐term motor end‐plate innervation in the PNS. Schwann cell‐specific loss of MCT4 does not lead to detectable changes in the PNS. Absence of MCT1 in Schwann cells leads to transcriptional changes in spinal cord motor neurons. Abstract Recent studies in neuron‐glial metabolic coupling...

Microglial CX3CR1 production increases in Alzheimer's disease and is regulated by noradrenaline

Main Points Microglial CX3CR1 is increased in Alzheimer's disease. Reboxetine increases microglial production of CX3CR1 and reactivity toward amyloid beta. Noradrenaline reduces CX3CR1 in rat microglia cultures and in human HMC3 microglial cell line. Abstract The loss of noradrenergic neurons and subsequent reduction of brain noradrenaline...

Dietary fat exacerbates postprandial hypothalamic inflammation involving glial fibrillary acidic protein‐positive cells and microglia in male mice

Main points Short‐term dietary fat exposure exacerbates postprandial hypothalamic inflammation and modulates hypothalamic neuropeptides gene expression that regulates energy balance. Both responses involved GFAP‐positive and microglia cells. Abstract In humans, obesity is associated with brain inflammation, glial reactivity, and immune cells...

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Schwann cell p75 neurotrophin receptor modulates small fiber degeneration in diabetic neuropathy

GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT MAIN POINTS HFD induces obesity, mechanical allodynia and reduction of NCV in a similar fashion in WT and SC‐p75NTR‐KO mice Loss of Schwann cell p75NTR accelerates C‐fiber degeneration in diabetic neuropathy and modulates lysosomal and immune‐related pathways Abstract Diabetic neuropathy has an incidence as high as...

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