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Interplay of Lithium Intercalation and Plating on a Single Graphite Particle

Lithium plating in graphite electrodes is a side reaction that prevents the fast charging of Li-ion batteries. Understanding its mechanism and onset condition is critical for effective material design, cell engineering, and battery management to realize fast charging. This work revealed the lithium plating mechanism on single graphite particles by combining...

Manufacturing energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with plastics consumption

This study estimates the supply chain energy and greenhouse gas emissions for annual plastics consumption in the United States across 18 major polymer types. These data provide an important benchmark against which to compare new technologies that enable circularity in plastics materials flows through improved recycling processes and that enable new...

A reaction engineering approach to non-aqueous battery lifetime

Longer lifetime will improve the economic and environmental costs of Li-ion batteries. Predicting and controlling lifetime requires better understanding of chemical side reactions. Here, we argue that battery side reactions are essentially a problem of catalytic selectivity. In this reaction engineering context, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages...

The metamorphosis of rechargeable magnesium batteries

Electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices beyond commercially available batteries are needed to help enable societal decarbonization. In response, R&D efforts have been pursuing battery chemistries that offer opportunities for improved performances, lower costs, and are more sustainable. Although in theory poised to satisfy these demands, rechargeable...

Ultrahigh Electricity Generation from Low-Frequency Mechanical Energy by Efficient Energy Management

We proposed an ultrahigh-voltage energy-management unit consisting of a spark switch and a matched home-made transformer. With high performance (peak 11.13 kW m−2 and constant 291 mW m−2), TENG can drive a sensor network and power commercial LEDs. This work with high output performance, universal standard transformer design for electrostatic energy,...

Direct Observation on p- to n-Type Transformation of Perovskite Surface Region during Defect Passivation Driving High Photovoltaic Efficiency

We demonstrated a complete transformation of perovskite surface region energetics from p- to n-type during defect passivation via a nature molecule, capsaicin. We further observed the p-n homojunction locating at ∼100 nm below the perovskite surface. The synergies between defect passivation and energetics modification not only promoted charge transport...

Electrocaloric cooling over high device temperature span

Electrocaloric cooling has been proposed as an energy-efficient, environmentally benign alternative to the conventional vapor compression cooling technology. The limited material adiabatic temperature change under safe operation field has been a major challenge for the development of practical cooling devices, which usually require a device temperature...

Elucidating the Full Potential of OPV Materials Utilizing a High-Throughput Robot-Based Platform and Machine Learning

A self-developed platform called AMANDA Line One is demonstrated for fabricating and characterizing organic solar cells automatically in a high-throughput manner. Over 100 processing variations are screened in terms of efficiency and photostability within 70 h. Combined with machine learning methods, a multi-target evaluation of OPV materials at the...

Large-Molecule Decomposition Products of Electrolytes and Additives Revealed by On-Electrode Chromatography and MALDI

The decomposition of electrolyte and additive molecules has a critical impact on battery performance. In this work, large-molecule decomposition products in solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) are identified with clear structure assignment by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The MALDI analysis...

Thermodynamic Discrimination between Energy Sources for Chemical Reactions

In this work, we develop a framework to compare thermodynamic driving forces, namely temperature (thermal energy), pressure (mechanical energy), and voltage (electrical energy). When applied to multiple industrially practiced and next-generation reactions, our analysis reveals a clear division between reactions that traditionally rely on pressure and...

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