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Impaired TRPV4-eNOS signaling in trabecular meshwork elevates intraocular pressure in glaucoma [Physiology]

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma that leads to irreversible vision loss. Dysfunction of trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue, a major regulator of aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance, is associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in POAG. However, the underlying pathological mechanisms of TM dysfunction...

Orphan nuclear receptor ERR-{gamma} regulates hepatic FGF23 production in acute kidney inȷury [Medical Sciences]

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone generally derived from bone, is important in phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis. In acute kidney injury (AKI) patients, high-circulating FGF23 levels are associated with disease progression and mortality. However, the organ and cell type of FGF23 production in AKI and the molecular mechanism...

Discriminating symbiosis and immunity signals by receptor competition in rice [Plant Biology]

Plants encounter various microbes in nature and must respond appropriately to symbiotic or pathogenic ones. In rice, the receptor-like kinase OsCERK1 is involved in recognizing both symbiotic and immune signals. However, how these opposing signals are discerned via OsCERK1 remains unknown. Here, we found that receptor competition enables the discrimination...

Parental bias in expression and interaction of genes in the equine placenta [Genetics]

Most autosomal genes in the placenta show a biallelic expression pattern. However, some genes exhibit allele-specific transcription depending on the parental origin of the chromosomes on which the copy of the gene resides. Parentally expressed genes are involved in the reciprocal interaction between maternal and paternal genes, coordinating the allocation...

Cholestenone functions as an antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori by inhibiting biosynthesis of the cell wall component CGL [Microbiology]

Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen responsible for gastric cancer, contains a unique glycolipid, cholesteryl-α-D-glucopyranoside (CGL), in its cell wall. Moreover, O-glycans having α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc) are secreted from gland mucous cells of gastric mucosa. Previously, we demonstrated that CGL is critical for H. pylori survival...

Highly efficient photosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in ambient conditions [Engineering]

Photosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in ambient conditions remains neither cost effective nor environmentally friendly enough because of the rapid charge recombination. Here, a photocatalytic rate of as high as 114 μmol⋅g−1⋅h−1 for the production of H2O2 in pure water and open air is achieved by using a Z-scheme heterojunction,...

Mycobacterial fatty acid catabolism is repressed by FdmR to sustain lipogenesis and virulence [Microbiology]

Host-derived fatty acids are an important carbon source for pathogenic mycobacteria during infection. How mycobacterial cells regulate the catabolism of fatty acids to serve the pathogenicity, however, remains unknown. Here, we identified a TetR-family transcriptional factor, FdmR, as the key regulator of fatty acid catabolism in the pathogen Mycobacterium...

Inner Workings: Making headway with the mysteries of life’s origins [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

In 1863, Charles Darwin opined in a letter to a friend that contemplating the origin of life was “mere rubbish thinking” and that “one might as well think of [the] origin of matter.” Many researchers today would agree with Darwin. And yet, whereas cosmologists know how particles, elements, and many...

Cryo-EM structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis DyP-loaded encapsulin [Biochemistry]

Encapsulins containing dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP)-type peroxidases are ubiquitous among prokaryotes, protecting cells against oxidative stress. However, little is known about how they interact and function. Here, we have isolated a native cargo-packaging encapsulin from Mycobacterium smegmatis and determined its complete high-resolution structure...

The impact of identity by descent on fitness and disease in dogs [Evolution]

Domestic dogs have experienced population bottlenecks, recent inbreeding, and strong artificial selection. These processes have simplified the genetic architecture of complex traits, allowed deleterious variation to persist, and increased both identity-by-descent (IBD) segments and runs of homozygosity (ROH). As such, dogs provide an excellent model...

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