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Proton exchange membrane fuel cells powered with both CO and H2 [Chemistry]

The CO electrooxidation is long considered invincible in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), where even a trace level of CO in H2 seriously poisons the anode catalysts and leads to huge performance decay. Here, we describe a class of atomically dispersed IrRu-N-C anode catalysts capable of oxidizing CO,...

Explanations for tropical diversity gradients are rooted in the deep past [Evolution]

Species are distributed unevenly across the surface of Earth. More species are found in the warm tropics than in cool temperate regions. This pattern was first recognized over two centuries ago by Alexander von Humboldt, with his observation “The nearer we approach the tropics, the greater the increase in the...

Neural mechanisms of deliberate dishonesty: Dissociating deliberation from other control processes during dishonest behaviors [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Numerous studies have sought proof of whether people are genuinely honest by testing whether cognitive control mechanisms are recruited during honest and dishonest behaviors. The underlying assumption is: Deliberate behaviors require cognitive control to inhibit intuitive responses. However, cognitive control during honest and dishonest behaviors can...

Aminopeptidases trim Xaa-Pro proteins, initiating their degradation by the Pro/N-degron pathway [Biochemistry]

N-degron pathways are proteolytic systems that recognize proteins bearing N-terminal (Nt) degradation signals (degrons) called N-degrons. Our previous work identified Gid4 as a recognition component (N-recognin) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteolytic system termed the proline (Pro)/N-degron pathway. Gid4 is a subunit of the oligomeric glucose-induced...

Digital printing of shape-morphing natural materials [Engineering]

We demonstrate how programmable shape evolution and deformation can be induced in plant-based natural materials through standard digital printing technologies. With nonallergenic pollen paper as the substrate material, we show how specific geometrical features and architectures can be custom designed through digital printing of patterns to modulate...

The area rule for circulation in three-dimensional turbulence [Applied Physical Sciences]

An important idea underlying a plausible dynamical theory of circulation in three-dimensional turbulence is the so-called area rule, according to which the probability density function (PDF) of the circulation around closed loops depends only on the minimal area of the loop, not its shape. We assess the robustness of the...

The genetic source tracking of human urinary exosomes [Genetics]

The genetic origins of nanoscale extracellular vesicles in our body fluids remains unclear. Here, we perform a tracking analysis of urinary exosomes via RNA sequencing, revealing that urine exosomes mostly express tissue-specific genes for the bladder and have close cell-genetic relationships to the endothelial cell, basal cell, monocyte, and dendritic...

Critical regulation of follicular helper T cell differentiation and function by G{alpha}13 signaling [Immunology and Inflammation]

GPCR-Gα protein–mediated signal transduction contributes to spatiotemporal interactions between immune cells to fine-tune and facilitate the process of inflammation and host protection. Beyond this, however, how Gα proteins contribute to the helper T cell subset differentiation and adaptive response have been underappreciated. Here, we found that Gα13...

Correction for Donate et al., Cigarette smoke induces miR-132 in Th17 cells that enhance osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory arthritis [Immunology and Inflammation]

IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION. Correction for “Cigarette smoke induces miR-132 in Th17 cells that enhance osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory arthritis,” by Paula B. Donate, Kalil Alves de Lima, Raphael S. Peres, Fausto Almeida, Sandra Y. Fukada, Tarcilia A. Silva, Daniele C. Nascimento, Nerry T. Cecilio, Jhimmy Talbot, Rene D. Oliveira, Geraldo A....

COVID-19 lockdowns drive decline in active fires in southeastern United States [Sustainability Science]

Fire is a common ecosystem process in forests and grasslands worldwide. Increasingly, ignitions are controlled by human activities either through suppression of wildfires or intentional ignition of prescribed fires. The southeastern United States leads the nation in prescribed fire, burning ca. 80% of the country’s extent annually. The COVID-19 pandemic...

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