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Disruption of female reproductive function by endotoxins

Endotoxemia can be caused by obesity, environmental chemical exposure, abiotic stressors and bacterial infection. Circumstances that deleteriously impact intestinal barrier integrity can induce endotoxemia, and controlled experiments have identified negative impacts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; an endotoxin mimetic) on folliculogenesis, puberty onset,...

RNASET2 impairs the sperm motility via PKA/PI3K/calcium signal pathways

Asthenozoospermia is one of the leading causes of male infertility owing to a decline in sperm motility. Herein, we determined if there is a correlation between RNASET2 content on human spermatozoa and sperm motility in 205 semen samples from both asthenozoospermia patients and normozoospermia individuals. RNASET2 content was higher in sperm from asthenozoospermia...

The role of tight junction proteins in ovarian follicular development and ovarian cancer

Tight junctions (TJ) are protein structures that control the transport of water, ions and macromolecules across cell layers. Functions of the transmembrane TJ protein, occluding (OCLN) and the cytoplasmic TJ proteins, tight junction protein 1 (TJP1; also known as zona occludens protein-1), cingulin (CGN) and claudins (CLDN) are reviewed, and current...

Siglec expression on the surface of human, bull and ram sperm

Sialic acid (Sia) is a major constituent of both the sperm glycocalyx and female reproductive mucosal surface and is involved in regulating sperm migration, uterotubal reservoir formation and oocyte binding. Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin – like lectins) commonly found on immune cells, bind to Sia in a linkage- and sugar-specific manner...

Food restriction but not fish oil increases fertility in hens: role of RARRES2?

Overfed hens selected for their rapid growth become fatter and develop reproductive disorders. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that food restriction leading to a weight reduction and/or a supplementation with fish oil may be effective in preventing reproductive disorders through the regulation of adipokine expression in broiler hens. This study included...

Maternal inheritance of mitochondria: implications for male fertility?

Evolutionary theory predicts maternal inheritance of the mitochondria will lead to the accumulation of mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that impair male fertility, but leave females unaffected. The hypothesis has been referred to as ‘Mother’s Curse’. There are many examples of mtDNA mutations or haplotypes, in humans and other metazoans, associated...

C1QTNF3 in the murine ovary and its function in folliculogenesis

C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 (C1QTNF3) is a novel adipokine with modulating effects on metabolism, inflammation and the cardiovascular system. C1QTNF3 expression levels in the sera and omental adipose tissues of women with PCOS are low compared to control subjects. However, the expression and function of C1QTNF3 in the ovary has not previously...

Dysregulated genes and their functional pathways in luteinized granulosa cells from PCOS patients after cabergoline treatment

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder frequently associated with a substantial risk factor for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Dopamine receptor 2 (D2) agonists, like cabergoline (Cb2), have been used to reduce the OHSS risk. However, lutein granulosa cells (LGCs) from PCOS patients treated with Cb2 still show...

Influence of antifertility agents Dutasteride and Nifedipine on CatSper gene level in epididymis during sperm maturation in BALB/c mice

Calcium (Ca2+) signaling is critical for successful fertilization. In spermatozoa, capacitation, hyperactivation of motility and the acrosome reaction are all mediated by increases in intracellular Ca2+ through CatSper (sperm-specific cation channel). The CatSper channel complex contains four pore-forming α subunits (CatSper1–4) and five accessory subunits...

Expression and function of Pdcd4 in mouse endometrium during early pregnancy

Embryo implantation is a complex process involving synchronised crosstalk between a receptive endometrium and functional blastocysts. Apoptosis plays an important role in this process as well as in the maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we analysed the expression pattern of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), a gene associated with apoptosis in the...

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