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Airborne transmission of respiratory viruses

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of and a need to update the traditional view of transmission pathways for respiratory viruses. The long-standing definitions of droplet and airborne transmission do not account for the mechanisms by which virus-laden respiratory droplets and aerosols travel through the air...

Developmental and evolutionary dynamics of cis-regulatory elements in mouse cerebellar cells

Organ development is orchestrated by cell- and time-specific gene regulatory networks. In this study, we investigated the regulatory basis of mouse cerebellum development from early neurogenesis to adulthood. By acquiring snATAC-seq (single-nucleus assay for transposase accessible chromatin using sequencing) profiles for ~90,000 cells spanning 11 stages,...

Prenatal maternal infection promotes tissue-specific immunity and inflammation in offspring

The immune system has evolved in the face of microbial exposure. How maternal infection experienced at distinct developmental stages shapes the offspring immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during pregnancy, maternally restricted infection can have permanent and tissue-specific impacts on offspring immunity. Mechanistically,...

Waking up to my sleep disorder

Geometric deep learning of RNA structure

RNA molecules adopt three-dimensional structures that are critical to their function and of interest in drug discovery. Few RNA structures are known, however, and predicting them computationally has proven challenging. We introduce a machine learning approach that enables identification of accurate structural models without assumptions about their defining...

Enterococcus peptidoglycan remodeling promotes checkpoint inhibitor cancer immunotherapy

The antitumor efficacy of cancer immunotherapy can correlate with the presence of certain bacterial species within the gut microbiome. However, many of the molecular mechanisms that influence host response to immunotherapy remain elusive. In this study, we show that members of the bacterial genus Enterococcus improve checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy...

Insolation triggered abrupt weakening of Atlantic circulation at the end of interglacials

Abrupt cooling is observed at the end of interglacials in many paleoclimate records, but the mechanism responsible remains unclear. Using model simulations, we demonstrate that there exists a threshold in the level of astronomically induced insolation below which abrupt changes at the end of interglacials of the past 800,000 years occur. When decreasing...

Advances and challenges in time-resolved macromolecular crystallography

Conformational changes within biological macromolecules control a vast array of chemical reactions in living cells. Time-resolved crystallography can reveal time-dependent structural changes that occur within protein crystals, yielding chemical insights in unparalleled detail. Serial crystallography approaches developed at x-ray free-electron lasers...

Population sequencing data reveal a compendium of mutational processes in the human germ line

Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties...

Highly conductive and elastic nanomembrane for skin electronics

Skin electronics require stretchable conductors that satisfy metallike conductivity, high stretchability, ultrathin thickness, and facile patternability, but achieving these characteristics simultaneously is challenging. We present a float assembly method to fabricate a nanomembrane that meets all these requirements. The method enables a compact assembly...

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