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Profile of Haig H. Kazazian Jr. [Profiles]

When geneticist Haig H. Kazazian Jr. was 16, he overheard a conversation between his father and a family friend. “What do you think? Is he going to be a doctor?” asked his father. “I think he’ll be a scientist,” replied the friend. Kazazian went on to become both. Trained in...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/HsH_oNLTGfE"...

Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany [Statistics]

We use the synthetic control method to analyze the effect of face masks on the spread of COVID-19 in Germany. Our identification approach exploits regional variation in the point in time when wearing of face masks became mandatory in public transport and shops. Depending on the region we consider, we...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/vIIpai9OMoI"...

Coexpressed subunits of dual genetic origin define a conserved supercomplex mediating essential protein import into chloroplasts [Plant Biology]

In photosynthetic eukaryotes, thousands of proteins are translated in the cytosol and imported into the chloroplast through the concerted action of two translocons—termed TOC and TIC—located in the outer and inner membranes of the chloroplast envelope, respectively. The degree to which the molecular composition of the TOC and TIC complexes...<img...

Hierarchical routing in carbon metabolism favors iron-scavenging strategy in iron-deficient soil Pseudomonas species [Environmental Sciences]

High-affinity iron (Fe) scavenging compounds, or siderophores, are widely employed by soil bacteria to survive scarcity in bioavailable Fe. Siderophore biosynthesis relies on cellular carbon metabolism, despite reported decrease in both carbon uptake and Fe-containing metabolic proteins in Fe-deficient cells. Given this paradox, the metabolic network...

Directionality of light absorption and emission in representative fluorescent proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Fluorescent molecules are like antennas: The rate at which they absorb light depends on their orientation with respect to the incoming light wave, and the apparent intensity of their emission depends on their orientation with respect to the observer. However, the directions along which the most important fluorescent molecules in...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/TH21VQjrzDA"...

A dual role for {alpha}-synuclein in facilitation and depression of dopamine release from substantia nigra neurons in vivo [Neuroscience]

α-Synuclein is expressed at high levels at presynaptic terminals, but defining its role in the regulation of neurotransmission under physiologically relevant conditions has proven elusive. We report that, in vivo, α-synuclein is responsible for the facilitation of dopamine release triggered by action potential bursts separated by short intervals (seconds)...

COVID-19 lockdown induces disease-mitigating structural changes in mobility networks [Social Sciences]

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic many countries implemented containment measures to reduce disease transmission. Studies using digital data sources show that the mobility of individuals was effectively reduced in multiple countries. However, it remains unclear whether these reductions caused deeper structural changes in mobility networks and how...

A unified neurocomputational bilateral model of spoken language production in healthy participants and recovery in poststroke aphasia [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Understanding the processes underlying normal, impaired, and recovered language performance has been a long-standing goal for cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Many verbally described hypotheses about language lateralization and recovery have been generated. However, they have not been considered within a single, unified, and implemented computational...

Multiscale integration of environmental stimuli in plant tropism produces complex behaviors [Plant Biology]

Plant tropism refers to the directed movement of an organ or organism in response to external stimuli. Typically, these stimuli induce hormone transport that triggers cell growth or deformation. In turn, these local cellular changes create mechanical forces on the plant tissue that are balanced by an overall deformation of...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/yHt1vdSaXck"...

Observation of spontaneous ferromagnetism in a two-dimensional electron system [Applied Physical Sciences]

What are the ground states of an interacting, low-density electron system? In the absence of disorder, it has long been expected that as the electron density is lowered, the exchange energy gained by aligning the electron spins should exceed the enhancement in the kinetic (Fermi) energy, leading to a (Bloch)...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/3tP646iFCkE"...

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