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Stick-slip model for actin-driven cell protrusions, cell polarization, and crawling [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

Cell crawling requires the generation of intracellular forces by the cytoskeleton and their transmission to an extracellular substrate through specific adhesion molecules. Crawling cells show many features of excitable systems, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking and crawling in the absence of external cues, and periodic and propagating waves of activity....<img...

Localized foundering of Indian lower crust in the India-Tibet collision zone [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

The deep structure of the continental collision between India and Asia and whether India’s lower crust is underplated beneath Tibet or subducted into the mantle remain controversial. It is also unknown whether the active normal faults that facilitate orogen-parallel extension of Tibetan upper crust continue into the lower crust and...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/6xEGxmpEF3o"...

Stable homotopy groups of spheres [Mathematics]

We discuss the current state of knowledge of stable homotopy groups of spheres. We describe a computational method using motivic homotopy theory, viewed as a deformation of classical homotopy theory. This yields a streamlined computation of the first 61 stable homotopy groups and gives information about the stable homotopy groups...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/07S79w7KnXY"...

Prevalence of neural collapse during the terminal phase of deep learning training [Applied Mathematics]

Modern practice for training classification deepnets involves a terminal phase of training (TPT), which begins at the epoch where training error first vanishes. During TPT, the training error stays effectively zero, while training loss is pushed toward zero. Direct measurements of TPT, for three prototypical deepnet architectures and across seven...<img...

Low genetic diversity may be an Achilles heel of SARS-CoV-2 [Commentaries]

Scientists worldwide are racing to develop effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. An important and perhaps underappreciated aspect of this endeavor is ensuring that the vaccines being developed confer immunity to all viral lineages in the global population....

The cytoplasmic tail of human mannosidase Man1b1 contributes to catalysis-independent quality control of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin [Biochemistry]

The failure of polypeptides to achieve conformational maturation following biosynthesis can result in the formation of protein aggregates capable of disrupting essential cellular functions. In the secretory pathway, misfolded asparagine (N)-linked glycoproteins are selectively sorted for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) in response...

Ecological divergence and hybridization of Neotropical Leishmania parasites [Population Biology]

The tropical Andes are an important natural laboratory to understand speciation in many taxa. Here we examined the evolutionary history of parasites of the Leishmania braziliensis species complex based on whole-genome sequencing of 67 isolates from 47 localities in Peru. We first show the origin of Andean Leishmania as a...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/1fYyINivKhs"...

Convergent molecular, cellular, and cortical neuroimaging signatures of major depressive disorder [Neuroscience]

Major depressive disorder emerges from the complex interactions of biological systems that span genes and molecules through cells, networks, and behavior. Establishing how neurobiological processes coalesce to contribute to depression requires a multiscale approach, encompassing measures of brain structure and function as well as genetic and cell-specific...

Unusually efficient CUG initiation of an overlapping reading frame in POLG mRNA yields novel protein POLGARF [Genetics]

While near-cognate codons are frequently used for translation initiation in eukaryotes, their efficiencies are usually low (<10% compared to an AUG in optimal context). Here, we describe a rare case of highly efficient near-cognate initiation. A CUG triplet located in the 5′ leader of POLG messenger RNA (mRNA) initiates almost...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/p834Je4udZs"...

Targeting the histone demethylase PHF8-mediated PKC{alpha}-Src-PTEN axis in HER2-negative gastric cancer [Cell Biology]

Targeted treatments for advanced gastric cancer (GC) are needed, particularly for HER2-negative GC, which represents the majority of cases (80 to 88%). In this study, in silico analyses of the lysine histone demethylases (KDMs) involved in diverse biological processes and diseases revealed that PHD finger protein 8 (PHF8, KDM7B) was...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/Pnas-RssFeedOfEarlyEditionArticles/~4/r3__waZaKH8"...

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