Vitalik Buterin's website

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Latest articles

Gitcoin Grants Round 5 Retrospective

Special thanks to Kevin Owocki and Frank Chen for help and review Round 5 of Gitcoin Grants has just finished, with $250,000 of matching split between tech, media, and the new (non-Ethereum-centric) category of "public health". In general, it seems like the mechanism and the community are settling down into a regular rhythm. People know what it means...

A Quick Garbled Circuits Primer

Special thanks to Dankrad Feist for review Garbled circuits are a quite old, and surprisingly simple, cryptographic primitive; they are quite possibly the simplest form of general-purpose "multi-party computation" (MPC) to wrap your head around. Here is the usual setup for the scheme: Suppose that there are two parties, Alice and Bob, who want to...

Review of Gitcoin Quadratic Funding Round 4

Round 4 of Gitcoin Grants quadratic funding has just completed, and here are the results: The main distinction between round 3 and round 4 was that while round 3 had only one category, with mostly tech projects and a few outliers such as EthHub, in round 4 there were two separate categories, one with a $125,000 matching pool for tech projects,...

Base Layers And Functionality Escape Velocity

One common strand of thinking in blockchain land goes as follows: blockchains should be maximally simple, because they are a piece of infrastructure that is difficult to change and would lead to great harms if it breaks, and more complex functionality should be built on top, in the form of layer 2 protocols: state channels, Plasma, rollup, and so forth....

Christmas Special

Since it's Christmas time now, and we're theoretically supposed to be enjoying ourselves and spending time with our families instead of waging endless holy wars on Twitter, this blog post will offer some games that you can play with your friends that will help you have fun and at the same time understand some spooky mathematical concepts! 1.58 dimensional...

Quadratic Payments: A Primer

Special thanks to Karl Floersch and Jinglan Wang for feedback If you follow applied mechanism design or decentralized governance at all, you may have recently heard one of a few buzzwords: quadratic voting, quadratic funding and quadratic attention purchase. These ideas have been gaining popularity rapidly over the last few years, and small-scale tests...

Hard Problems in Cryptocurrency: Five Years Later

Special thanks to Justin Drake and Jinglan Wang for feedback In 2014, I made a post and a presentation with a list of hard problems in math, computer science and economics that I thought were important for the cryptocurrency space (as I then called it) to be able to reach maturity. In the last five years, much has changed. But exactly how much progress...

Review of Gitcoin Quadratic Funding Round 3

_Special thanks to the Gitcoin team and especially Frank Chen for working with me through these numbers_ The next round of Gitcoin Grants quadratic funding has just finished, and we the numbers for how much each project has received [were just released](https://gitcoin.co/blog/gitcoins-q3-match/). Here are the top ten: Altogether, $163,279...

Review of Gitcoin Quadratic Funding Round 3

Special thanks to the Gitcoin team and especially Frank Chen for working with me through these numbers The next round of Gitcoin Grants quadratic funding has just finished, and we the numbers for how much each project has received were just released. Here are the top ten: Altogether, $163,279 was donated to 80 projects by 477 contributors, augmented...

In-person meatspace protocol to prove unconditional possession of a private key

Recommended pre-reading: https://ethresear.ch/t/minimal-anti-collusion-infrastructure/5413 Alice slowly walks down the old, dusty stairs of the building into the basement. She thinks wistfully of the old days, when quadratic-voting in the World Collective Market was a much simpler process of linking her public key to a twitter account and opening up...

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